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Health and Social Care

F​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ollow Task and Cr​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​iteria Descriptio​

F​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ollow Task and Cr​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​iteria Descriptio​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​n

Categories
Health and Social Care

A​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ssessment 3: Written Assessment Assessment Overview Type:

A​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ssessment 3: Written Assessment
Assessment Overview
Type: Written Assessment
Weighting: 60%
Length: 3000 words excluding reference list but including in-text references and direct quotations +/- 10%.
Unit Coordinator: Professor Michelle Cleary
Aim
The aim of this assessment is to demonstrate your understanding of the impact of worldviews on a specific practice.
Instructions
You are to write a 3000 words essay critically analysing the influence of implicit and explicit worldviews on Mental health Clinical Care Coordination. Ensure key terms such as axiology, epistemology, ontology and ethics are defined throughout the written assessment.
In your essay you must:
1. Explain how the implicit and explicit worldviews of practitioners, researchers, organisations and governments might influence a specific practice.
2. Discuss the influence of implicit and explicit worldviews on what is considered to be legitimate knowledge.
3. Analyse the influence of implicit and explicit worldviews on practice and decision making with people who are disadvantaged or disempowered.
Note Carefully
To achieve a passing grade for this unit you are required to pass this assessment item. If you do not pass this assessment item, you may have an opportunity to re-attempt. In order for the Unit Coordinator to allow a re-attempt, they must be satisfied that you have made a reasonable attempt in the assessment item. If a re-attempt is offered, you will have only 7 consecutive days to resubmit your assessment item and you can only receive 50% of the available marks. Only one reattempt will be allowed.
Literature and references
In this assessment use at least 12 contemporary academic references (<5 years) to support your discussion. You may also use seminal scholarly literature where relevant. Suitable references include peer-reviewed journal articles as well as textbooks and credible websites. When sourcing information, consider the 5 elements of a quality reference: currency, authority, relevance, objectivity, and coverage. Grey literature sourced from the internet must be​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ from reputable websites such as from government, university, or peak national bodies: for example, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Wefare, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety (ANROWS), Australian College of Nursing, Australian Association of Social Workers.
Requirements
• Use a conventional and legible size 12 font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, with 1.5 line spacing and 2.54cm page margins (standard pre-set margin in Microsoft Word).
• Include page numbers on each page in a footer.
• Write in the first-person perspective.
• Use formal academic language.
• Use the seventh edition American Psychological Association (APA) referencing style. The CQUniversity Academic Learning Centre has an online APA Referencing Style Guide.
• The word count excludes the reference list but includes in-text references and direct quotations.
Resources
• You can use unit provided materials and other credible sources (e.g. journal articles, books) to reference your argument. The quality and credibility of your sources are important.
• We recommend that you access your discipline specific library guide: the Nursing and Midwifery Guide; and the Social Work and Community Services Guide.
• We recommend you use EndNote to manage your citations and reference list. More information on how to use EndNote is available at the CQUniversity Library website.
• For information on academic communication please go to the Academic Learning Centre Moodle site. The Academic Communication section has many helpful resources including information for students with English as a second language.
Submission & Marking Criteria
Submit your assessment via the Assessment 2: Rubric and Submission page in Microsoft Word format only. This page also contains the Marking Rubric.
Learning Outcomes Assessed
• Explain axiology, ontology, epistemology, and ethics and their contribution to significant worldviews.
• Analyse the influence of implicit and explicit world​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​views on a specific practice.

Categories
Health and Social Care

G​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​oal of this Session Long Project: This assignment is the

G​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​oal of this Session Long Project:
This assignment is the second of four SLPs where you will be building a bank of takeaways pertaining to ethical and/or unethical behaviors.
Begin by reading the following scenario for SLP 2:
When Even Doctors Smoked
From the 1940s to the 1970s, cigarettes were as common as water bottles are today. Nearly everyone smoked, from judges in court to factory workers and pregnant women. Edward Bernays, the Austrian-American founder of the field of public relations, promoted smoking among women in a 1929 campaign in New York City in which he marketed Lucky Strike cigarettes as “torches of freedom” that would lead to equality between men and women.
However, by the late 1960s, and in the wake of the release of the landmark Surgeon General’s report on “Smoking and Health” on January 11, 1964, it had become clear that there was a direct link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Subsequent research has added heart and lung diseases, stroke, and diabetes. Smoking has decreased in Western countries but remains well established in the global East and South, where cigarette manufacturers actively promote the products in markets like Brazil, China, Russia, and Singapore, especially among young people.
Are such practices ethical? Why or why not?
Source: Byars and Stanberry (2018), pgs. 140-141.
The following source should also be useful to you as reference:
World Health Organization. (2018). WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2000-2025 (2nd Ed.), pp. 11-18. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272694/9789241514170-eng.pdf?ua=1.
This assignment asks you to:
Express your reactions
Apply your own background/experiences
State important takeaways
Add other comments you would like to make
Your SLP submission should be 2- to 3-pages of text, well organized, well written, and 100% error free. You may use first- or third-person voice. Write in full sentences and demonstrate your critical-thinking skills. Be creative (for example, add color and/or small graphics).
Note: In this SLP we have introduced the importance of library research. Going forward also support your arguments with sources from the Trident Online Library. This is an expectation at the graduate level.
Additional Requirements for this SLP Assignment:
Utilize 3 sources of information from the Trident Online Library, one from each of the following:
A book from Skillsoft Books 24×7
A periodical from ProQuest Central
An Internet source
Include an Appendix at the end of y​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​our paper (add it just after your References page). In the appendix for each source discuss why you chose to use it in your paper, and discuss what factors you used to determine they were appropriate.
Information Literacy Emphasis
The grading rubric for Information Literacy has been developed to measure student success in meeting the ETH501 SLP 2 “introduced” expectations related to Information Literacy. Other assessments of information literacy at the “reinforced” and “emphasized” levels are included in future assignments in courses designed for that purpose.
General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Papers:
For a list of general reference sources related to locating library sources, using APA formatting, applying critical-thinking skills, and so forth, see General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Assignments. It is not required that you read these sources page-by-page, but rather use them as guides.
SLP Assignment Expectations
This assignment will be assessed on the following criteria in the Information Literacy rubric:
Determine the extent of the information needed: Effectively defines the scope of the research question and determines key concepts. Types of information (sources) selected directly relate to concepts or answer research question.
Access the needed information: Accesses information using effective, well-designed search strategies and most appropriate information sources.
Evaluate information and its sources critically: Thoroughly (systematically and methodically) analyzes own and others’ assumptions and carefully evaluates the relevance of contexts when presenting a position.
Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose: Communicates, organizes, and synthesizes information from sources to fully achieve a specific purpose, with clarity and depth.
Access and use information ethically and legally: Correctly uses all of the following information use strategies (use of citations and references; choice of paraphrasing, summary, or quoting; using information in ways that are true to original context; distinguishing between common knowledge and ideas requiring attribution) and demonstrates a full understanding of the ethical and legal restrictions on the use of published, confidential, and/or proprietary information.
Timeliness: Assignment submitted on time or delivered late with instructor’s approval.
World Health Organization. (2018). WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2000-2025 (2nd Ed.), pp. 11-18. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272694​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​/9789241514170-eng.pdf?ua=1

Categories
Health and Social Care

T​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​his assignment provides you the opportunity to learn abou

T​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​his assignment provides you the opportunity to learn about ethical business behavior that is all around us.
Read Cases from the Real World: Competition and the Markers of Business Success, found in the following:
Byars, S., & Stanberry, K. (2018). Why ethics matter, chapter 1. Business Ethics. Rice University, OpenStax. Retrieved from https://cnx.org/content/col25722/1.3 pg. 15. CC BY 4.0 license
Also view the following interviews with Warren Buffett:
CBS Sunday Morning. (2017, December 3). Sunday profile: Warren Buffett [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=168&v=O665cNwMVGw
PBS NewsHour. (2017, June 26). America should stand for more than just wealth, says Warren Buffett [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S6irBmOnQEc.
“It takes 20 years to build a reputation and five minutes to ruin it. If you think about that, you’ll do things differently.” Warren Buffett
What is an ethical leader? They lead by example and exemplify ethical decision making and conduct focused on a common good. They are known to act with integrity and inspire respect among peers, constituents, and subordinates. Successful ethical leaders are champions of their beliefs and communicate them throughout an organization to develop a supportive culture.
Keep in mind that all people possess virtues and vices, and while they may strive to support ethical tenets, they may fail at times.
In this assignment you also have the opportunity to learn about Bernie Madoff.
Cold Fusion (2019). The Man Who Stole $65 billion (Bernie Madoff). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gDqGSmTPtOQ
Steinberg, M. and Cohn, S. (Apr. 14, 2021). Bernie Madoff, mastermind of the nation’s biggest investment fraud, dies at 82. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/04/14/bernie-madoff-dies-mastermind-of-the-nations-biggest-investment-fraud-was-82.html
Also see:
Crippen, A. (2008). Warren Buffett: People thought “I was doing some sort of Ponzi scheme.” Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2008/12/16/warren-buffett-people-thought-i-was-doing-some-sort-of-ponzi-scheme.html
Maranjian, S. (2017). What Buffett and Madoff Have in Common. The Motley Fool. Retrieved from https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2009/01/07/what-buffett-and-madoff-have-in-common.aspx.
Case Assignment
Address the following in a 3- to 4-page essay, demonstrating your critical-thinking skills:
Discuss Warren Buffett’s approach to business dealings, especially as they relate to business ethics.
Compare that approach to Bernie Madoff’s.
Apply ethical philosophies that you have learned about in this Module and state which you think apply to Mr. Buffett.
Which ethical philosophies apply to Mr. Madoff? Why?
Create a table where you compare and contrast these two investors from an ethical standpoint. Be sure to discuss your table in your paper.
Write a well-integrated paper with a strong introduction and conclusion, and use a few section headings (i.e., do not simply follow a Q & A format).
Use your module background information and any other reliable sources you wish to find. The sources do not need to come from the Trident Online Library. For all sources, however, provide in-text citations and include a reference list.
The goal for most who attend graduate school is to complete a degree.
A great way to start is having abundant motivation, great time management skills (no habit of procrastination), and your eye on the goal.
View the following highlights from the Trident 2018 Commencement. Picture yourself in the video.
Trident University International. (2018, July 18). Grad highlights_2018 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/280475824.
Introduction to Business Ethics
View the following video on universal ethical standards expected whenever people work together:
Workplace Ethics Made Simple
TrainingABC (Producer). (2017). Workplace Ethics Made Simple [Video file]. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library, Academic Video Online: Premium database.
Is it always that easy? Telling people what to do and what not to do? Of course not. This is why studying ethics is important. Why care about ethics in our lives, our business practices, and our professions?
Let’s continue by reading:
Byars, S., & Stanberry, K. (2018). Business Ethics. Rice University, OpenStax. Retrieved from https://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/BusinessEthics-OP.pdf. pp. 7-22. CC BY 4.0 license
As you read this book, be sure to click on the links in the “Link to Learning” sections. This will help add depth to the subject you are reading about.
We learn from Byars and Stanberry (2018) that ethics matter because being a professional of integrity matters. It also matters that organizations remain profitable and have ethical standards to follow.
“Ethical business conduct permits us to sleep well at night.” (Byers & Stanberry, 2018).
As we have mentioned, ethics has philosophical underpinnings. Let’s take a look in more detail at four different normative perspectives that Byars and Stanberry mention—utilitarianism, deontology (duty), virtue, and justice ethics. (Normative simply means establishing a norm or standard.)
First, read the following, which is the textbook we will utilize throughout this course. We will only read parts of the text, but you may also find the rest of the book of interest.
Byars, S., & Stanberry, K. (2018). Business Ethics. Rice University, OpenStax. Retrieved from https://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/BusinessEthics-OP.pdf. pp. 40-58. CC BY 4.0 license
Utilitarian Ethics
Utilitarian ethics is also referred to as utility ethics or consequentialist ethics. Utility ethics is the theory that “an action is morally right if and only if it produces at least as much good (utility) for all people affected by the action as any alternative action the person could do instead” (Audi, 1999, p. 824).
Source: Audi, R. (Ed.). (1995). The Cambridge dictionary of philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Think of utilitarianism in terms of the benefit of the outcomes derived from a given action. This theory is largely concerned with the end result–doing the “greatest good” for the largest number of persons.
Utilitarianism ethics is often criticized as being “the ends justify the means.” This is because it is concerned with the outcome of a decision or action rather than whether or not the action is ethical in itself. For example, would you lie to avoid hurting your friend’​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​s feelings, or is lying always wrong? Is it wrong to needlessly harm one person to save two other lives? Under this philosophy you examine these dilemmas strictly by looking at the consequences of these types of actions and not whether it is wrong to lie or wrong to needlessly harm.
View the following video to learn more about utilitarianism:
CrashCourse. (2016, November 21). Utlitarianism: Crash Course Philosophy #36 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-a739VjqdSI.
Deontology (Duty) Ethics
The next video is about deontology or often called duty ethics:
Duty ethics are rooted in the maxim that a person must act in a certain way for no reason other than because it is the right way to act – in essence, I should act this way because it is my duty to do so.
The following short video does a very good job categorizing the ethical theories.
Carneades.org. (2017, May 21). What is deontology? (normative ethics) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMCeaXyrl7k.
Immanuel Kant, well-known deontologist, provided a new way of looking at the nature of the human mind. The mind has an inherent and unconditional duty to act ethically. There are no contradictions—character and being a good person counts.
Kant’s Categorical Imperative, requires that an act is ethical only if we can consider that act as being acceptable by everyone everywhere (a universal law). In this context, murder is wrong because we would not will the act of murder to become a universally acceptable behavior. Therefore, Kant would say that it is my duty not to murder another person. To do otherwise (i.e., to actively harm other people knowing that it is my duty not to harm them), according to Kant, is irrational – and it is unethical.
To learn more about Kant’s deontological thinking, view the following video:
Philosophy Tube. (2016, June 10). Beginner’s guide to Kant’s moral philosophy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQ2fvTvtzBM&t=127s.
Also read:
Duty-based ethics. (2014). BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml
Virtue Ethics
And the next-to-the-last normative theory we will look at is virtue ethics, a moral theory. This line of thought goes back to the great ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato but is still widely applied in the study of business ethics. Viewing this video will help you understand virtue ethics and how to apply it to real-world business situations:
CrashCourse. (2016, December 5). Aristotle & virtue theory: Crash course philosophy #38 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/PrvtOWEXDIQ.
Justice Ethics
In this video we will learn about John Rawls and his universal system of fairness—taking care of the most disadvantaged. For example, should you have to pay into a system that provides medical coverage to other people less health conscious than you?
CrashCourse. (2016, December 19). What is justice? Crash course philosophy #40 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/H0CTHVCkm90.
Your exposure to the different philosophical perspectives should come in handy in the rest of this course. Since ethics is all about “behaviors,” that is what we focus on. Ethics philosophy is just the tip of the “business ethics” iceberg, so keep up your momentum and look at ethics dilemmas and how the theories might help guide (or at least categorize) our thinking.
Francis and Murfey (2016) provides these examples of ethical problems business encounters today:
If I don’t have to pay tax in the countries where I do business, should I? And if so, how much?
What are the impacts on the consumers of the product?
What are my responsibilities to suppliers? Do I drive a hard bargain without regard for their profitability?
Do I need to be concerned about the employees of a subcontractor in a developing economy?
What are the environmental impacts of this decision?
How do I balance my values with the very different values of a business partner from another culture?
How much do I sacrifice profit for something that is perceived as a social good? What is the balance between profit and responsibility to the wider community?
How do I create a culture of integrity and set standards for employees?
How do I deal with informers (whistleblowers) who are ethically right but an embarrassment to the company?
How do I deal with a problem of ethnicity in the workplace without seeming to be racist?
Under what conditions is it all right to accept gifts?
How should I deal with sexual impropriety by employees?
If national espionage is acceptable does that make it all right to indulge in industrial and commercial espionage?
Source for the information above: Francis, R. and Murfey, G. (2016). Global business ethics: Responsible Decision-Making in an international context. Available from the Trident Online Library, Skillsoft Books, 24×7.
General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Papers:
For a list of general reference sources related to locating library sources, using APA formatting, applying critical-thinking skills, and so forth, see General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Papers. It is not required that you read these sources page-by-page, but rather you refer to them for guidance.
What do ‘First Person’ and ‘Third Person’ Mean?
First-Person Voice:
Personal Writing, such as for a reflective essay, “personal response,” opinion piece, and discussion posting, can be written in the first person (using “I” and “me”), and may use personal opinions and anecdotes as evidence for the points you are making.
Example of writing in first person:
I am sure that his philosophy was correct for his time, however, this is the technology era and I feel …
The SLP assignments and the Discussion Forums in ETH501 allow first-person voice since they are less structured and more personalized than an academic paper.
Third-Person Voice:
Academic essay papers at Trident should be written in the third person and should use valid academic sources as evidence to support your writing.
Example of writing in third person (citing a fictional source):
The speaker concludes that the Stone Age was the beginning of our current technology era. Other speakers reject the idea. In Basics of Thought and Action, Dr. Stan Sanbola identifies four reasons for supporting the Stone Age idea and four reasons why the thinking is faulty. Sanbola has provided the needed perspective on the argument (2018, pg. 132​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​).
The Case assignments in ETH501 should be written in third person.

Categories
Health and Social Care

S​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ignature Assignment for Written Communications – Introduc

S​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ignature Assignment for Written Communications – Introduced Level
Goal of this Session Long Project:
This assignment is the first of four SLPs where you will build a bank of takeaways pertaining to ethical and/or unethical behaviors.
After reviewing this SLP scenario:
Express your reactions
Apply your own background/experiences
Cite at least two background and course materials
State important takeaways
Add other comments you would like to make
Your SLP submission should be 2 to 3 pages of text, well organized, well written, and 100% error free. You may use first- or third-person voice. Write in full sentences. Demonstrate your critical-thinking skills. It is not required that you search the Trident Online Library for additional reference sources for this SLP 1; however, add at least 2 applicable background materials from the module. You may bring in reputable Internet sources. Be sure to cite all sources used. Be creative (for example, add color and/or small graphics) to enhance your writing.
Watch the following video showing examples of conflict of interest:
McCombs School of Business. (2019, February 19). Concepts unwrapped: Conflict of interest [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/aQpZnlWk9As
Written Communications Emphasis
The grading rubric for Written Communications has been developed to measure student success in meeting the ETH501 SLP 1 “introduced” expectations related to written communications. Other assessments of written communications at the “reinforced” and “emphasized” levels are included in future assignments in courses designed for that purpose.
General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Papers:
For a list of general reference sources related to locating library sources, using APA formatting, applying critical-thinking skills, and so forth, see General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Assignments. It is not required that you read these sources page-by-page, but rather use them as guides.
SLP Assignment Expectations
This signature assignment for written communications (introduced level) will be assessed utilizing the following rubric criteria:
Context and purpose for writing: A thorough understanding of context, audience, and purpose that is responsive to the assigned task(s) and focuses all elements of the work.
Content: Uses appropriate, relevant, and compelling content to illustrate mastery of the subject, conveying the writer’s understanding, and shaping the whole work.
Adherence to conventions in specific disciplines, syntax control, and mechanics: Detailed attention to and successful execution of a wide range of conventions particular to a specific discipline and/or writing tasks(s) including organization, content, presentation, formatting, stylistic choices, and subject-appropriate language that skillfully communicates meaning to readers with clarity, and is error-free.
Sources and Evidence: Demonstrates skillful use of high-quality, credible, relevant sources to develop ideas that are appropriate for the discipline and genre of the writing.
Citing Sources: Mastery using in-text citations of sources, proper format for quotations, and correctly formats full source information in the reference list using APA style (bibliography).
The goal for most who attend graduate school is to complete a degree.
A great way to start is having abundant motivation, great time management skills (no habit of procrastination), and your eye on the goal.
View the following highlights from the Trident 2018 Commencement. Picture yourself in the video.
Trident University International. (2018, July 18). Grad highlights_2018 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://vimeo.com/280475824.
Introduction to Business Ethics
View the following video on universal ethical standards expected whenever people work together:
Workplace Ethics Made Simple
TrainingABC (Producer). (2017). Workplace Ethics Made Simple [Video file]. Retrieved from the Trident Online Library, Academic Video Online: Premium database.
Is it always that easy? Telling people what to do and what not to do? Of course not. This is why studying ethics is important. Why care about ethics in our lives, our business practices, and our professions?
Let’s continue by reading:
Byars, S., & Stanberry, K. (2018). Business Ethics. Rice University, OpenStax. Retrieved from https://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/BusinessEthics-OP.pdf. pp. 7-22. CC BY 4.0 license
As you read this book, be sure to click on the links in the “Link to Learning” sections. This will help add depth to the subject you are reading about.
We learn from Byars and Stanberry (2018) that ethics matter because being a professional of integrity matters. It also matters that organizations remain profitable and have ethical standards to follow.
“Ethical business conduct permits us to sleep well at night.” (Byers & Stanberry, 2018).
As we have mentioned, ethics has philosophical underpinnings. Let’s take a look in more detail at four different normative perspectives that Byars and Stanberry mention—utilitarianism, deontology (duty), virtue, and justice ethics. (Normative simply means establishing a norm or standard.)
First, read the following, which is the textbook we will utilize throughout this course. We will only read parts of the text, but you may also find the rest of the book of interest.
Byars, S., & Stanberry, K. (2018). Business Ethics. Rice University, OpenStax. Retrieved from https://d3bxy9euw4e147.cloudfront.net/oscms-prodcms/media/documents/BusinessEthics-OP.pdf. pp. 40-58. CC BY 4.0 license
Utilitarian Ethics
Utilitarian ethics is also referred to as utility ethics or consequentialist ethics. Utility ethics is the theory that “an action is morally right if and only if it produces at least as much good (utility) for all people affected by the action as any alternative action the person could do instead” (Audi, 1999, p. 824).
Source: Audi, R. (Ed.). (1995). The Cambridge dictionary of philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Think of utilitarianism in terms of the benefit of the outcomes derived from a given action. This theory is largely concerned with the end result–doing the “greatest good” for the largest number of persons.
Utilitarianism ethics is often criticized as being “the ends justify the means.” This is because it is concerned with the outcome of a decision or action rather than whether or not the action is ethical in itself. For example, would you lie to avoid hurting your friend�​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​�s feelings, or is lying always wrong? Is it wrong to needlessly harm one person to save two other lives? Under this philosophy you examine these dilemmas strictly by looking at the consequences of these types of actions and not whether it is wrong to lie or wrong to needlessly harm.
View the following video to learn more about utilitarianism:
CrashCourse. (2016, November 21). Utlitarianism: Crash Course Philosophy #36 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-a739VjqdSI.
Deontology (Duty) Ethics
The next video is about deontology or often called duty ethics:
Duty ethics are rooted in the maxim that a person must act in a certain way for no reason other than because it is the right way to act – in essence, I should act this way because it is my duty to do so.
The following short video does a very good job categorizing the ethical theories.
Carneades.org. (2017, May 21). What is deontology? (normative ethics) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMCeaXyrl7k.
Immanuel Kant, well-known deontologist, provided a new way of looking at the nature of the human mind. The mind has an inherent and unconditional duty to act ethically. There are no contradictions—character and being a good person counts.
Kant’s Categorical Imperative, requires that an act is ethical only if we can consider that act as being acceptable by everyone everywhere (a universal law). In this context, murder is wrong because we would not will the act of murder to become a universally acceptable behavior. Therefore, Kant would say that it is my duty not to murder another person. To do otherwise (i.e., to actively harm other people knowing that it is my duty not to harm them), according to Kant, is irrational – and it is unethical.
To learn more about Kant’s deontological thinking, view the following video:
Philosophy Tube. (2016, June 10). Beginner’s guide to Kant’s moral philosophy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQ2fvTvtzBM&t=127s.
Also read:
Duty-based ethics. (2014). BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/introduction/duty_1.shtml
Virtue Ethics
And the next-to-the-last normative theory we will look at is virtue ethics, a moral theory. This line of thought goes back to the great ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato but is still widely applied in the study of business ethics. Viewing this video will help you understand virtue ethics and how to apply it to real-world business situations:
CrashCourse. (2016, December 5). Aristotle & virtue theory: Crash course philosophy #38 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/PrvtOWEXDIQ.
Justice Ethics
In this video we will learn about John Rawls and his universal system of fairness—taking care of the most disadvantaged. For example, should you have to pay into a system that provides medical coverage to other people less health conscious than you?
CrashCourse. (2016, December 19). What is justice? Crash course philosophy #40 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/H0CTHVCkm90.
Your exposure to the different philosophical perspectives should come in handy in the rest of this course. Since ethics is all about “behaviors,” that is what we focus on. Ethics philosophy is just the tip of the “business ethics” iceberg, so keep up your momentum and look at ethics dilemmas and how the theories might help guide (or at least categorize) our thinking.
Francis and Murfey (2016) provides these examples of ethical problems business encounters today:
If I don’t have to pay tax in the countries where I do business, should I? And if so, how much?
What are the impacts on the consumers of the product?
What are my responsibilities to suppliers? Do I drive a hard bargain without regard for their profitability?
Do I need to be concerned about the employees of a subcontractor in a developing economy?
What are the environmental impacts of this decision?
How do I balance my values with the very different values of a business partner from another culture?
How much do I sacrifice profit for something that is perceived as a social good? What is the balance between profit and responsibility to the wider community?
How do I create a culture of integrity and set standards for employees?
How do I deal with informers (whistleblowers) who are ethically right but an embarrassment to the company?
How do I deal with a problem of ethnicity in the workplace without seeming to be racist?
Under what conditions is it all right to accept gifts?
How should I deal with sexual impropriety by employees?
If national espionage is acceptable does that make it all right to indulge in industrial and commercial espionage?
Source for the information above: Francis, R. and Murfey, G. (2016). Global business ethics: Responsible Decision-Making in an international context. Available from the Trident Online Library, Skillsoft Books, 24×7.
General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Papers:
For a list of general reference sources related to locating library sources, using APA formatting, applying critical-thinking skills, and so forth, see General References Useful for Preparing Graduate-Level Papers. It is not required that you read these sources page-by-page, but rather you refer to them for guidance.
What do ‘First Person’ and ‘Third Person’ Mean?
First-Person Voice:
Personal Writing, such as for a reflective essay, “personal response,” opinion piece, and discussion posting, can be written in the first person (using “I” and “me”), and may use personal opinions and anecdotes as evidence for the points you are making.
Example of writing in first person:
I am sure that his philosophy was correct for his time, however, this is the technology era and I feel …
The SLP assignments and the Discussion Forums in ETH501 allow first-person voice since they are less structured and more personalized than an academic paper.
Third-Person Voice:
Academic essay papers at Trident should be written in the third person and should use valid academic sources as evidence to support your writing.
Example of writing in third person (citing a fictional source):
The speaker concludes that the Stone Age was the beginning of our current technology era. Other speakers reject the idea. In Basics of Thought and Action, Dr. Stan Sanbola identifies four reasons for supporting the Stone Age idea and four reasons why the thinking is faulty. Sanbola has provided the needed perspective on the argument (2018, pg. 132).​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​
The Case assignments in ETH501 should be written in third person.